This dramatic change in appreciation of Erdoğan's personality in less than ten years seems excessive. Wasn't he already on an authoritarian slope in 2011? But also, mentioning Erdoğan today, the strong man of Turkey, together with Putin, Xi and Trump, isn't it Whatsapp Mobile Number List overestimating his power, as well as the international status of his country? Shouldn't Erdoğan's Turkey rather be seen as a middle power, whose aggressiveness and audacity are made possible by the crisis of international leadership in the region, a country brutally ruled by an elected autocrat, economically unstable and socially very fragile? The Turkey of today is located in an intermediate level in the scale of anti-democracies two: that of the new authoritarianism.
In a collective work directed by Michel Duclos, 18 of the new current authoritarian leaders are portrayed, grouping them into three categories: "the national-populists, the neo-authoritarians and the assumed authoritarians"3. Under the category of the assumed authoritarians are dictators such as Bashar al-Assad, Kim Jong-un, Abdelfatá al Sisi, Mohamed bin Whatsapp Mobile Number List Salman and Mohamed bin Zayed and, of course, Xi Jinping. Putin is the Whatsapp Mobile Number List this category. The group of national-populists includes, among others, Jair Bolsonaro, Jarosław Kaczyński and Narendra Modi. It is the middle group of neo-authoritarians that constitutes "the main target" of the book. Rodrigo Duterte, Paul Kagame, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and Nicolás Maduro rub shoulders there with Viktor Orbán and Erdoğan.
The list is very heteroclite and debatable. The argument put forward in the book to support this election is his coming to power through the ballot box, even in the case of Khamenei, elected by his peers, and his non-democratic exercise of power. Within this group, Whatsapp Mobile Number List However, the first four leaders, who exercise their power within the framework of a stable authoritarian political regime in their countries, must be distinguished from the cases of Orbán and Erdoğan, who would more specifically represent the new authoritarianism. His authoritarianism is the product of an evolution over time often described as "authoritarian drift"4.